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Oncology Glossary

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Western pattern diet: Western pattern diet is characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, fat, refined grains, and dessert.

Wilcoxon rank sum test (also called Mann-Whitney U test): A commonly applied nonparametric statistical hypothesis test for comparing two groups. The test assesses whether there is a shift between the distributions of both groups (ie, whether one of two samples of independent observations tends to have larger values than the other). Assumptions are that all observations are independent, that the variances of both groups are equal, and that observations are on an ordinal or continuous scale.

within-group comparison: a comparison used in a randomized controlled trial, when instead of comparing the randomized groups directly, researchers test whether there was a significant change from baseline separately in each randomly assigned group.

Wnt: The family of Wnt proteins comprises of conserved secreted signaling molecules that regulate cell-cell interactions in embryogenesis. Binding of Wnt proteins to receptors of the frizzled family on cellular surfaces, transduces signals to b-catenin, which enters the nucleus to activate transcription of Wnt target genes.

WRN: A human DNA helicase, WRN is a member of the RecQL family of helicases, DNA unwinding and exonuclease activities. WRN is involved in DNA repair and stability mechanisms.

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