Advertisement
Journal of Clinical Oncology  
Search for:
Limit by:
  Browse by Subject or Issue
Home Search or Browse JCO My JCO Subscriptions Customer Service Site Map

Oncology Glossary

0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z



A1: a member of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins. A1 is localized in the mitochondria and inhibits the release of cytochrome c.

ABCB1 (ATP-binding cassette protein B1): a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, which are divided into seven subfamilies. ABCB1 is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily and is involved in multidrug resistance. The protein behaves like a pump and is responsible for the efflux of xenobiotic compounds from the cell, thereby decreasing drug levels in multidrug-resistant cells. Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in cancer often results from the presence of this transporter.

ABCC1 (ATP-binding cassette protein C1): member 1 of the subfamily C in the family of ATP-binding cassette transporters.

ABCC2 (ATP-binding cassette protein C2): member 2 of the subfamily C in the family of ATP-binding cassette transporters. ABCC2 is most often expressed in canalicular membranes of hepatocytes.

ABCC5: gene encoding one of the proteins in the family of ATP-binding cassette transporters, subfamily C. Also called MOAT C or multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) homolog MRP5, ABCC5 confers resistance to fluorouracil and platinum drugs.

ABCG2 (ATP-binding cassette protein G2): member 2 of the subfamily G in the family of ATP-binding cassette transporters. ABCG2 is expressed in the placenta and involved in transport of specific molecules into or out of the placenta.

abiraterone acetate: selective inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis that potently blocks cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17).

Abl: a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, the Abelson kinase. Nuclear and cytoplasmic forms of Abl are implicated in apoptosis and cell adhesion, respectively. Nuclear Abl is typically activated by DNA strand breaks.

ABL: the gene coding for the Abelson tyrosine kinase. See Abl.

abscopal: a reaction produced following irradiation but occurring outside the zone of actual radiation absorption.

absent/present call: when using an Affymetrix Microarray (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA), the detection algorithm uses probe pair intensities to generate a detection P value and assigns a call. Each probe pair in a probe set is considered as having a potential vote in determining whether the measured transcript is detected (present) or not detected (absent).

absolute benefit: the absolute reduction in risk for a clinical outcome (eg, cancer recurrence) attributable to a therapeutic intervention, calculated as the risk in untreated patients minus the risk in treated patients. For example, if the 5-year risk of recurrence is 30% for untreated patients and 20% for patients treated with a specific therapy, then the absolute benefit is 10% (30% minus 20%).

ABT-869: a novel ATP-competitive receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has potent inhibitory activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3; platelet-derived growth factor receptor β; colony stimulating factor 1 receptor; and FLT3.

accelerated fractionation: radiation dose fractionation schedule with an effective rate of dose accumulation exceeding the traditional 10 Gy delivered in five fractions per week.

acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase): one of the two distinct phosphodiesterases that hydrolyse sphingomyelin to yield ceramide and phosphocholine. aSMase functions at an acid pH (4 to 5), requires zinc for its activity, and resides in the lysosomal compartment of the cell. The lack of functional aSMase is also implicated in Niemann-Pick's disease, which arises as a result of the accumulation of several lipids in the lysosomal compartment of the cell.

acral skin: the non–hair-bearing areas such as soles, palms, and nail beds.

ACTB: gene coding for β-actin, a protein that is ubiquitous to all eukaryotic cells. Actins are highly conserved proteins involved in several types of cell motility. ACTB is often used as a reference (housekeeping) gene for normalization of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction data.

actionable aberrations: any aberration (germline or somatic) that may impact cancer management through diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive implications.

activated B-cell–like (ABC): a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One of the two major subtypes of DLBCL identified by gene expression profiling. This subtype is also referred to as non–germinal center B-cell type in immunohistochemistry-based classifications.

activator domains: often acidic or rich in proline residues, activator domains are regions in transcription factors that bind to proteins known as coactivators which assist in the transcription process.

active immunotherapy: induction of an immune response in the host, typically to a particular antigen or set of antigens. This is commonly by means of a vaccine and is in contrast to a passive immunotherapy in which cells, antibodies, or cytokines of the immune systems are passively infused into the host.

active surveillance: an approach to management of suspected or proven malignancy felt to pose a low risk of progression in the short to intermediate term. Tumors are observed closely with blood tests, imaging, and/or serial biopsy, and intervention is undertaken if/when there is evidence of tumor growth or progression.

acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): type of blood cancer characterized by uncontrolled expansion of lymphoblast cells. The most common cancer in children and a prototype of disseminated tumor that can be cured by chemotherapy alone. ALL consists of molecular subtypes with distinct genomic abnormalities and prognosis.

ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase): a family of integral membrane and secreted glycoproteins. ADAMTS are multifunctional enzymes involved in cell-surface remodeling, ectodomain shedding, regulation of growth factor availability, extracellular matrix degradation, and mediation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in both normal development and pathologic states.

adaptive allocation: randomized trial design that adjusts the proportion of patients randomly assigned to each arm throughout the trial on the basis of efficacy and/or toxicities seen in previously treated patients. Also referred to as play-the-winner randomization strategies.

adaptive design models: design models that allow adaptations to trial procedures of studies after their initiation without undermining the validity or integrity of the trials.

adaptive immune reaction: the adaptive immune system allows for a stronger immune response as well as immunologic memory, in which each pathogen is “remembered” by a signature antigen. The adaptive immune response is antigen-specific and requires the recognition of specific nonself antigens during a process called antigen presentation. Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are tailored to specific pathogens. The ability to mount these tailored responses is maintained in the body by so-called memory cells. The cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, called lymphocytes, of which B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes. B cells are involved in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response.

adaptive immunity: an immune response that is usually directed against a specific antigen. This type of immune response results in immunologic memory.

ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity): a mechanism of cell-mediated immunity whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell that has been bound by specific antibodies.

adduct: a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight.

adenoviral p53: the E1- and E3-deleted, replication deficient adenovirus vector encoding for the wild-type p53 tumor suppressor gene.

adipophilin: also called adipose differentiation related protein. It is highly expressed in adipose tissues and is associated with the surface of lipid droplets in a wide range of cells and tissues that store or synthesize lipids.

ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion): gene pathways important in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of a pharmaceutical compound within an organism. These genes influence the drug levels and kinetics of drug exposure to tissues and can influence the performance and pharmacologic activity of the compound as a drug.

adoptive cell transfer (ACT): the culture and expansion of T lymphocytes outside the body and then the infusion of those lymphocytes into patients for therapeutic purposes.

adoptive T-cell therapy: the culture and expansion of T lymphocytes outside the body and then the infusion of those lymphocytes into patients for therapeutic purposes.

adult glioblastoma (aGBM): a highly malignant astrocytoma that occurs in adults and belongs to the family of high-grade gliomas.

adult high-grade gliomas (aHGG): highly vascular tumors that often invade other tissues. They have extensive areas of necrosis and hypoxia, and tumor growth often causes a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier.

AE-941: also called Neovastat (Aeterna Laboratories, Quebec City, Canada). AE-941 is a mixture of molecules of low molecular weight (< 500 kDa) that is obtained from the homogenization and purification of shark cartilage. It has been shown to have pleiotropic antiangiogenic activities in preclinical studies and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials in patients with refractory solid tumors.

AEG (adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric): adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric (AEG) junction as classified by Siewert’s classification of 1998 on the basis of their localization. AEG type I is an adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus; AEG type II is an adenocarcinoma of the cardia; and AEG type III is subcardial gastric cancer.

AES (affinity enhancement system): the process by which a bivalent hapten will cross-link two bispecific antibodies on the surface of a tumor, thereby increasing the bispecific antibody binding avidity.

AFIL-12: a replication-defective adenovirus that encodes the human interleukin-12 gene under the transcriptional control of a nonselective promoter.

AFP (alpha fetoprotein): a protein normally produced by the liver of a fetus. The amount of AFP in the blood of a pregnant woman may serve as an indicator for disorders that a growing fetus may have, such as spina bifida, anencephaly, or Down syndrome. Normal values for men and nonpregnant women vary between laboratories and range between 0 and 6.4 IU/mL or 0 and 20 ng/mL (the same as 0-20 μg/L). In a woman who is 15 to 22 weeks pregnant, the normal values range from 19 to 75 IU/mL or 7 to 124 ng/mL. High values in a pregnant woman may be indicative of an inaccurate gestational age, multiple pregnancies, a fetus with a neural tube or abdominal wall defect, or a dead fetus. In nonpregnant adults, a high value of AFP may indicate cancer of the liver, testicles, or ovaries.

AIB1 (Src3): a coactivator of nuclear receptors that interacts with nuclear receptors (eg, estrogen receptor). The multiprotein complex acts as a transcriptional activator. AIB1 is also overexpressed and/or amplified in several other cancers (eg, ovarian, prostate).

AK055699: contig sequence previously identified in a DNA microarray study of breast cancer recurrence risk.

Akaike information criterion: a measure of the goodness of fit of a statistical model that discourages overfitting and is used as a tool for model selection. For a given data set, competing models are ranked according to their Akaike information criterion value. The one with the lowest value is considered the best; however, there is no established value above which a given model is rejected.

AKT: a transforming serine-threonine kinase involved in cell survival.

AKT pathway: a signal transduction pathway involving the signaling molecules phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and AKT, in which PI3K generates phosphorylated inositides at the cell membrane that are required for the recruitment and activation of AKT, a transforming serine-threonine kinase involved in cell survival.

AKT/PKB: protein kinase B belongs to a pathway that is responsible for cell survival. After activation (ie, phosphorylation) by PI3K, activated AKT blocks the activity of molecules involved in the apoptotic pathway by phosphorylating themin turn.

ALDH1A1: gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1. It is an enzyme that is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues and catalyzes the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids.

alkylating agents: common antineoplastic alkylating agents include ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, busulfan, melphalan, carmustine, and chlorambucil. They attach to an alkyl group, which is connected to the guanine base of DNA at the number 7 nitrogen atom of the purine ring.

allele: an alternative form of a gene (in diploids, one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome.

allogeneic stem-cell transplantation: the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or the umbilical cord blood of a genetically nonidentical human donor.

α-tubulin: see tubulin.

ALU sequence: a repeat sequence approximately 300 base pairs long that is found on all human chromosomes. It is a short stretch of DNA characterized by the action of the ALU restriction endonuclease. ALU insertions have been linked to many inherited diseases, including cancer.

ALVAC: a canary pox virus&en;based gene-delivery system that has been developed as a vehicle for delivering multiple genes, including antigens. Canary pox is replication defective in human cells, yet the vector has broad tissue trophism, so it may enter cells and express the antigen, but it has a high safety index because it does not replicate. The vector is also useful because pre-exisiting neutralizing antibodies generally do not exist, because the wild-type virus does not infect humans.

ALVAC miniMAGE-1/3: a recombination ALVAC virus that contains a minigene encoding a MAGE-1 and a MAGE-3 antigen.

AMACR (alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase): a peroxisomal and mitochondrial enzyme that has an important role in bile acid biosynthesis and oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids and mediates the interconversion of (R)- and (S)-2-methyl-branched-chain fatty acyl coenzyme As. Mutations of the AMACR gene have been shown to cause adult-onset sensory motor neuropathy.

American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) TNM staging: a cancer staging system that describes the extent of cancer in a patient’s body. "T" describes the size of the tumor and whether it has invaded nearby tissue; "N" describes regional lymph nodes that are involved; "M" describes distant metastasis (spread of cancer from one body part to another). The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours was developed and maintained by the UICC to achieve consensus on one globally recognized standard for classifying the extent of spread of cancer. The TNM classification was also used by the AJCC. In 1987, the UICC and AJCC staging systems were unified into a single staging system. Prognosis of a patient is defined by TNM classification.

AML-ETO: the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation replaces the C terminus of acute myeloid leukemia, including its transactivation domain, with ETO, a nuclear protein of unknown function. The fusion protein acts as a transcriptional repressor. See ETO (eight twenty-one).

AML1-CBFβ: core binding factor beta.

amplicon: the DNA product of a polymerase chain reaction reaction, usually an amplified segment of a gene or DNA.

amplification: the increase of the copy number of a relatively narrow region of the genome, with the magnitude of the increase being large enough so that its generation requires more than a single aberrant event (eg, typically more than the gain of a single copy of the region.

amplification/deletion: amplification results in a gain in copy number of genes, whereas deletion results in gene loss.

anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK): an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the ALK gene.

anasamycin: a class of drugs that binds to molecular chaperones, preventing their association with other signaling molecules.

anastrozole: a third-generation nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that prevents the conversion of androgen to estrogen in the peripheral tissues in postmenopausal women. Because hormone-dependent breast cancer progresses with estrogen, anastrozole has been used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. See aromatase inhibitors.

androgen deprivation therapy (ADT): therapy which results in a reduction of circulating testosterone levels, which may be achieved by surgical castration, by LHRH agonists or antagonists, by androgen receptor blockers, or by androgen synthesis blockers.

androgen receptor: a DNA-binding and hormone-activated transcription factor important to the development and progression of prostate cancer. Its primary ligand is dihydrotestosterone. In later-stage (castration-resistant) prostate cancer, oncogenic alterations such as androgen receptor overexpression allow the androgen receptor to continue signaling despite undetectable, or castrate, levels of serum testosterone.

Ang (angiopoietins): a family of proteins. Ang1-4 are ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2. Ang1 and Ang2 are survival factors that prevent apoptosis and are important for blood vessel sprouting and remodeling. Ang1 promotes sprouting in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stabilizes the endothelial cell-pericyte interactions. Ang2 exerts a vessel-destabilizing effect that allows VEGF-mediated vascular reorganization. Although Ang3 and Ang4 were identified as antagonist and agonist of Tie2, respectively, the biologic roles of Ang3 and Ang4 have not been defined.

Ang1: see Ang (angiopoietins).

Ang2: see Ang (angiopoietins).

angiogenesis: the process involved in the generation of new blood vessels. Although this is a normal process that naturally occurs and is controlled by so-called on and off switches, blocking tumor angiogenesis (antiangiogenesis) disrupts the blood supply to tumors, thereby preventing tumor growth.

angiogenic factors: a group of small proteins and cytokines that are involved in the growth of new blood vessels.

angiostatin: a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis that is being evaluated in clinical trials for its efficacy as an anticancer agent. It is derived from an autoproteolytic cleavage of plasminogen.

angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB): Blocks the effect of angiotensin II, a chemical that narrows blood vessels, and thus helps widen blood vessels to allow blood to flow more easily, which lowers blood pressure. ARBs, at the present time, are generally prescribed when one cannot tolerate an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor to lower blood pressure.

annexin V: a probe in an affinity assay to detect cells that have expressed phosphatidylserine on the cell surface.

antagomir: cholesterol-conjugated oligonucleotides used to antagonize endogenous microRNAs.

anthracyclines: a class of antineoplastic agents derived from Streptomyces bacterium used to treat a variety of hematologic and solid malignancies. Anthracyclines have a well-established dose-related risk of cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Anthracyclines include agents like daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and idarubicin.

antiangiogenic: a process that involves blocking the generation of new blood vessels in a tumor, which disrupts the blood supply and thereby prevents tumor growth.

antiangiogenic scheduling: see metronomic chemotherapy.

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC): a mechanism of cell-mediated immunity whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell that has been bound by specific antibodies.

antibody-drug conjugate: an antibody chemically linked to a therapeutic cytotoxic agent providing targeted delivery of the cytotoxic agent preferentially to cancer cells expressing the antigen recognized by the antibody.

anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies: monoclonal antibodies against the CD40 receptor.

antigen: a substance that promotes, or is the target of, an immune response.

antigen-presenting cells (APCs): cells of the immune system that play a major role in adaptive immunity. APCs are responsible for binding and processing antigens for presentation to T lymphocytes and producing signals that lead to lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation. Dendritic cells and macrophages are examples of APCs.

antigen processing machinery: a pathway of degradative and chaperone proteins in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum that process and transport antigen, degrading whole protein in the cytoplasm into short peptide fragments, which are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum and then bound to HLA antigens. The trimolecular HLA-2 microglobulin-antigenic peptide complex is then transported to the cell surface for presentation to T lymphocytes.

antisense oligonucleotides: short strands of chemically modified DNA or DNA-RNA hybrids designed to regulate gene expression by binding through Watson-Crick base hybridization to a specific mRNA sense sequence. This results in blocking translation of the specific mRNA and, consequently, blocking the expression of a specific protein.

AP-1 (activator protein-1): a transcription factor composed of a homo- or heterodimeric complex comprising members belonging to the jun, fos, ATF, and Maf protein families. The dimers bind to the TPA-responsive element of DNA. Several proteins, including estrogen receptors, can bind to AP-1 complexes and enhance transcriptional activation, particularly of proliferation-related genes.

AP22408: inhibitor designed to prevent the binding of adaptor proteins to the SH2 (Src-homology 2) domain of Src.

AP23464: an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor in development for targeting the tyrosine kinase activities of Src and Abl kinase. AP23464 has also been shown to have activity against BCR-ABL mutations that are resistant to imatinib.

AP23573: a prodrug of rapamycin that has demonstrated activity against several cancers.

Apaf1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1): a cytoplasmic protein that contains a WD-40 domain, a caspase recruitment domain, and an ATPase domain and is involved in the initiation of apoptosis.

APC: a tumor suppressor gene. Mutations in the APC gene are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (germline mutations) or sporadic (somatic mutations) colorectal tumors. The gene product is known to interact with adherens junction proteins, a- and b-catenins, suggesting a role in cell adhesion.

Apo-2L: another name for TRAIL. See TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand).

apoptosis: also called programmed cell death. Apoptosis is a signaling pathway that leads to cellular suicide in an organized manner. Several factors and receptors are specific to the apoptotic pathway. The net result is that cells shrink and develop blebs on their surface, and their DNA undergoes fragmentation.

apoptosome: an oligomeric structure that is assembled when Apaf1 binds to cytochrome c and dATP and is involved in the release of mature activated caspase 9 that commits the cell to apoptosis.

apoptotic: also called programmed cell death. Apoptosis is a signaling pathway that leads to cellular suicide in an organized manner. Several factors and receptors are specific to the apoptotic pathway. The net result is that cells shrink and develop blebs on their surface, and their DNA undergoes fragmentation.

apoptotic index: the percentage of apoptotic cells in a given biologic specimen. The apoptotic index can be determined in several ways, including through the use of dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase 3 cleavage assays.

apoptotic pathway: also called programmed cell death. Apoptosis is a signaling pathway that leads to cellular suicide in an organized manner. Several factors and receptors are specific to the apoptotic pathway. The net result is that cells shrink and develop blebs on their surface, and their DNA undergoes fragmentation.

aptamer: see DNA aptamer.

arachidonic acid: the common precursor from which all eicosanoids are synthesized. Arachadonic acid is present in cell membranes in an esterified form, and its release from the membrane is initiated during inflammation when molecular oxygen is incorporated into the molecule by specific enzymes. Macrophages, neutrophils, platelets, and mast cells are among the cells in which eicosanoid biosynthesis is important in inflammation.

area under the curve (AUC): a measure of the amount of drug in the blood over a set period of time (eg, 24 hours) that can be used to determine drug exposure.

ARF (ADP ribosylation factor): belongs to the GTP-binding family of proteins and is chiefly responsible for regulating vesicle biogenesis in intracellular transport. The family of these regulators is growing and contains Arl (ARF-like), Arp (ARF-related proteins), and Sar (secretion-associated and Ras-related). ARF proteins oscillate between an inactive form (which binds GDP) and an active form (which binds GTP) that selectively bind to effector molecules.

aromatase inhibitors: inhibitors used in treating breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the conversion of androgens to estrogens by the enzyme aromatase, thus depriving the tumor of estrogenic signals. Because of decreased production of estrogen, estrogen receptors, which are important in the progression of breast cancer, cannot be activated.

array-based comparative genomic hybridization: a method that uses microarrays to probe changes in chromosomal DNA, thereby identifying precise areas in which genetic changes occur in cancer cells.

ARRY-142886: an oral, selective inhibitor of MEK activity in clinical development. ARRY-142886 noncompetitively inhibits the binding of ATP to MEK.

artificial neural networks (ANN): highly complex computational methodologies that perform multifactorial analyses, inspired by networks of biologic neurons. An ANN can correlate different predicting factors, find hidden interactions among variables, predict an outcome for an individual patient or for groups of patients, and classify patients into risk groups.

ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated): the protein, encoded by the ATM gene; a kinase that coordinates DNA repair by activating other proteins.

ATM gene: ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) belongs to the PI3K family and is mutated in the human autosomal recessive disease, ataxia telangiectasia. ATM is activated during DNA damage (eg, exposure to ionizing irradiation or chemical agents). The activation of ATM kinase leads to a cascade of kinase reactions that regulate cell cycle, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair. ATM can bind p53 directly and is responsible for its phosphorylation, thereby contributing to the activation and stabilization of p53 during the IR-induced DNA damage response.

ATP5D: gene coding for the delta (δ) subunit of the F1 complex of ATP synthase. The F1 complex is made of several proteins in stoichiometric proportions: α3β3γδε. The δ subunit maintains the structural stability of the F1 moiety of the ATP synthase, which is a proton transporter present in mitochondrial membranes.

ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related): a member of the PI3K-like protein kinase family of proteins that play key roles in signal transduction pathways after DNA damage. Unlike the ATM protein, which is activated after DNA double-strand breakage, ATR responds to single-strand regions of DNA exposed during stalling of DNA replication forks and during the repair of certain DNA adducts. Homozygous mutation of the ATR allele can result in the rare, autosomal recessive condition Seckel syndrome, which is characterized by developmental abnormalities, chromosomal instability, and a predisposition to cancer.

ATRA (all-trans retinoic acid): the molecule that activates retinoic acid receptors. See RARα (retinoic acid receptor).

aurora kinase inhibitors: inhibitors of aurora kinases, which are chromatin-modifying enzymes implicated in cell division. Aurora kinase inhibitors block the final stage of cell division known as cytokinesis. Normal cells are apparently less sensitive to this class of agents.

autocrine: secretion of a substance (for example, a growth factor) that stimulates the secretory cell itself.

automated quantitative protein expression analysis (AQUA): technology that overcomes limitations associated with traditional brown stain immunohistochemistry (IHC). In traditional IHC, protein expression is reported on a quantized scale such as zero, one, two, three. Biologic material is rarely expressed in such neatly quantized packets but rather on a continuous scale. AQUA is a method of computerized interpretation of fluorescent IHC images that allows protein expression to be automatically assigned to a subcellular compartment and expressed on a continuous scale.

autosomal: any chromosome not related to the sex chromosomes (X or Y). The autosomes are chromosomes 1-22.

avidin: protein isolated from mammalian eggs and, like streptavidin, has four high-affinity binding sites for biotin, but unlike streptavidin, is glycosylated. The glycosylation of avidin makes it an ideal clearing agent for a biotinylated immunoglobulin G (IgG), transferring the biotin-IgG in the blood to the liver.

AZD0530: an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor in development for targeting the tyrosine kinase activities of the Src and Abl kinases.

AZM475271: a tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed to inhibit the ATP-binding site of the Src kinase.


0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


About
JCO
 Editorial
Roster
 Advertising
Information
 Librarians &
Institutions
 Rights &
Permissions
 PDA Services

Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Online ISSN: 1527-7755. Print ISSN: 0732-183X
Terms and Conditions of Use
  HighWire Press HighWire Press™ assists in the publication of JCO Online